In Singapore, the Electronic Road Pricing program has enabled maintaining target speeds of 45 to 65 kilometers per hour on expressways and 20 to 30 kilometers per hour on arterials.
Singapore’s experience with electronic road pricing.
Singapore's Electronic Road Pricing
Geographic constraints and its unique political structure as a city-state allowed Singapore to implement congestion pricing beginning in 1975 with a paper-based permit system, later transitioning to an electronic system in 1998. All vehicles (excluding police and emergency vehicles) are charged a variable fee based on time of day and vehicle characteristics. All vehicles are equipped with a dedicated short-range communication (DSRC) enabled device that uses "rechargeable" payment cards to pay the road usage fees. Enforcement is done through an Automated Number Plate Recognition (ANPR) system.
The Singapore road pricing strategy is long standing and is also accompanied by costly vehicle taxes and strict vehicle quotas to limit the number of vehicles on the roadways. The longevity of the system has allowed the fee structure to be calculated to produce desired traffic volumes based on regularly collected data and is adjusted quarterly.
- Quarterly adjustments of charges based on routinely collected traffic data and roadway speeds has allowed the government to maintain free-flow speeds for 85 percent of vehicles charged. Speed targets are 45-65 kph on expressways and 20-30 kph on arterials.
- The used of ANPR for enforcement keeps violation levels below one percent.
Author: Robert Arnold, Vance C. Smith, John Q. Doan, Rodney N. Barry, Jayme L. Blakesley, Patrick T. DeCorla-Souza, Mark F. Muriello, Gummada N. Murthy, Patty K. Rubstello, Nick A. Thompson
Published By: Federal Highway Administration, U.S. DOT
Source Date: 12/01/2010URL: http://international.fhwa.dot.gov/pubs/pl10030/pl10030.pdf
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